Share via Email This article is over 4 years old Aissata Camara was subjected to female genital mutilation in Guinea. Now studying at New York University, she does not want other girls to suffer the same fate.
Reinfibulation can involve cutting the vagina again to restore the pinhole size of the first infibulation. This might be performed before marriage, and after childbirth, divorce and widowhood. Those men who do manage to penetrate their wives do so often, or perhaps always, with the help of the "little knife".
This creates a tear which they gradually rip more and more until the opening is sufficient to admit the penis. From the age of eight, girls are encouraged to stretch their inner labia using sticks and massage. Girls in Uganda are told they may have difficulty giving birth without stretched labia.
In a study by Nigerian physician Mairo Usman Mandara, over 30 percent of women with gishiri cuts were found to have vesicovaginal fistulae holes that allow urine to seep into the vagina.
In the case of Type III, other factors include how small a hole was left for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, whether surgical thread was used instead of agave or acacia thorns, and whether the procedure was performed more than once for example, to close an opening regarded as too wide or re-open one too small.
A systematic review of 56 studies suggested that over one in ten girls and women undergoing any form of FGM, including symbolic nicking of the clitoris Type IVexperience immediate complications, although the risks increased with Type III. The review also suggested that there was under-reporting.
Urine may collect underneath the scar, leaving the area under the skin constantly wet, which can lead to infection and the formation of small stones.
The opening is larger in women who are sexually active or have given birth by vaginal delivery, but the urethra opening may still be obstructed by scar tissue. Vesicovaginal or rectovaginal fistulae can develop holes that allow urine or faeces to seep into the vagina.
Complete obstruction of the vagina can result in hematocolpos and hematometra where the vagina and uterus fill with menstrual blood. Third-degree laceration tearsanal-sphincter damage and emergency caesarean section are more common in infibulated women.
The estimate was based on a study conducted on 28, women attending delivery wards at 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan. In those settings all types of FGM were found to pose an increased risk of death to the baby: The reasons for this were unclear, but may be connected to genital and urinary tract infections and the presence of scar tissue.
According to the study, FGM was associated with an increased risk to the mother of damage to the perineum and excessive blood lossas well as a need to resuscitate the baby, and stillbirthperhaps because of a long second stage of labour. Several small studies have concluded that women with FGM suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.
One third reported reduced sexual feelings. Was any flesh or something removed from the genital area?
Was your genital area sewn?Why Some Women Choose to Get Circumcised. "female genital mutilation." The shift from the medical argument to the human-rights argument means that a woman can turn to the state for.
Legislation on Female Genital Mutilation in the United States Female genital mutilation (FGM), has increasingly been the subject of legislative activity As have other legislatures around the world, the U.S.
Congress and a number of state legislatures have enacted statutes penalizing the practice. Female genital mutilation or cutting Researchers estimate more than , girls and women in the U.S.
have experienced or are at risk of FGM/C. 1 Worldwide, as many as million girls and women alive today have been cut. 2 FGM/C is often a part of the culture in countries where it is practiced. UNICEF uses innovative approaches to solve problems and improve the lives of children around the world.
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Europe and Central Asia; since UNFPA and UNICEF have collaborated on the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: For more data on female genital mutilation/cutting. Female genital mutilation has been documented in 30 countries, mainly in Africa, as well as in the Middle East and Asia.
Some forms of female genital mutilation have also been reported in other countries, including among certain ethnic groups in South America. Learn about female genital cutting from the Office on Women's Health. Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) means piercing, cutting, removing, Governments and groups in the United States and around the world are working together to end the practice of FGM/C.
Some approaches include.