We have been working towards planning activities that encourage students to explore concepts prior to delivering an explanation. Following this explanation we will plan for students to apply this understanding to further experiments, group activities and more analytical questions.
This included Bank Parsian and Sina Bank—two private Iranian financial institutions with which foreign banks had often engaged to facilitate legitimate trade between Iran and the outside world.
The designations signal the onset of a far broader economic war against Iran than existed prior to the negotiations that produced the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action JCPOA —the nuclear accord between the U. Iran has yet to react to these provocations, holding out hope that Europe and other major world powers can provide enough economic benefit to allow Iran to hold out against the Trump administration.
To the contrary, Europe has taken some important steps, including amending its blocking regulation to account for those U. This blocking regulation ostensibly prohibits European home companies from voluntarily complying with U. Europe has also pointedly signaled its intent to create a special purpose vehicle SPV to facilitate permissible trade between Europe and Iran.
Although the SPV remains in the developmental stages, its announcement should highlight the dangers inherent in the U. Enforcing its sanctions against the will of the international community, the United States risks engendering alternative payment channels over which Washington has little leverage, thereby undermining the utility of sanctions in future.
But none of these items establishes a line in the sand that the Trump administration must not cross—or else. It is one thing, for instance, to threaten European home companies with penalties for compliance with re-imposed U.
It is quite another to penalize American companies for the sins of their home government. Likewise, it is one thing to propose the creation of alternative payment mechanisms to facilitate legitimate trade with Iran.
It is altogether another to send a clear signal to the Trump administration that the enforcement of sanctions against European home companies—including the SPV itself—for engaging in legitimate trade with Iran will invite a robust political response directed at the United States.
Europe, in other words, must make a high-level political statement establishing a clear red line for the Trump administration and specifying the consequences to the United States from failing to observe this red line. Right now, the Trump administration is winning the battle over Iran.
It is creating just enough risk to foment an ongoing exodus of international companies from Iran and rendering the country a commercial pariah. As has long been true, Europe must find ways to absorb the risks being imposed on their home companies for engaging in legitimate trade with Iran own.
It must let the European private sector know that any harm that comes to it through such trade with Iran will become an issue of diplomatic concern.
It must make clear to the Trump administration that there will be severe consequences for any sanctions imposed on European companies.
If Europe is to preserve the nuclear accord, it must act quickly and with force. Otherwise, the most important diplomatic achievement in a decade will be forever lost, Europe will stand humiliated on the world stage, and a new war in the Middle East will begin to rage.Michael Bosack is a Ph.D.
Candidate at the International University of Japan's Graduate School of International Relations. Previously, he was the Deputy Chief of Government Relations at Headquarters, U.S.
Forces, Japan, where he was part of the team that drafted and implemented the Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation. The Provocations of Lenina in Huxley's Brave New World. David Leon Higdon, Texas Tech University.
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Dec 04, · Planting the seeds of Inquiry; Initial Provocations Posted on December 4, by fatima This summer two of our school communities engaged in a Summer Learning Program (SLP) whose goal was to address the summer gap for primary learners.
Essays and Provocations Boyd D and Crawford K () Critical questions for big data. Provocations for a cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon. Information, Communication & Society 15(5): – Call for papers on Data Politics in response to commentary by Evelyn Ruppert, Engin Isin and Didier Bigo.
The President's strong inclination in response to British provocations was to seek a diplomatic solution.
But the envoy to England, John Jay, negotiated a weak treaty that undermined freedom of trade on the high seas and failed to compensate Americans for slaves taken by the British during the Revolution.