Quantitative and Qualitative Data collection methods The Quantitative data collection methods, rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.
It is followed by a mail package, which includes instructions for how to respond through the Internet. A reminder postcard is sent a few days after the mail package. Sample members who do not respond after the reminder postcard are sent a replacement mail package, which includes a paper version of the questionnaire and a postage-paid envelope for a mail response.
Instructions for responding by the Internet are also included. The package is followed by another postcard reminder. Sample members who do not have a telephone number that can be used for telephone follow-up receive an additional postcard, alerting them that a field representative will be contacting them in person if they do not respond by mail or Internet.
Page 48 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Realizing the Potential of the American Community Survey: Challenges, Tradeoffs, and Opportunities. The National Academies Press. Telephone follow-up begins about 5 weeks after the first mailing.
The number of follow-up calls made to a household depends on the disposition of prior calls. For example, if the household refuses to participate by telephone, then one additional refusal conversion attempt is made in this mode.
The Census Bureau has been conducting research on the optimum number of follow-up calls based on historical data about call outcomes Zelenak, In-Person Visit After the mail, Internet, and telephone follow-ups are completed, the cases that have not yet been completed are subsampled for in-person follow-up.
Mailable addresses are sampled at a 1 in 2, 2 in 5, or 1 in 3 rate, depending on the response rate expected at the census tract level. Unmailable addresses are sampled at a 2 in 3 rate. Each case is assigned to a Methods and challenges in data collection representative, who will first attempt to complete the interview by telephone, except in cases where the household already refused by telephone or if the address was deemed unmailable, because in those cases the field representative would need to visit the location to determine whether the housing unit exists and to determine the occupancy status.
For most cases, an actual in-person visit is only attempted after three to five calls are made during different times of the day.
This is typically needed for approximately 80 percent of the cases assigned to the field. Although CATI refusals are slightly more likely to also end as a refusal in CAPI, field representatives are generally very successful at obtaining an interview, with an over 95 percent completion rate Zelenak, Group Quarters Data Collection As defined by the Census Bureau, group quarters are places where people live or stay in a group living arrangement and receive housing and services from an organization or other entity.
Page 49 Share Cite Suggested Citation: As did the census long-form sample, the ACS aims to be as comprehensive as possible in representing the entire U. The group quarters sample is separate from the housing unit sample, and the data collection process is also different to address the unique challenges associated with interviewing in the context of such facilities.
All group quarters cases are assigned to a field representative, who visits the facility after an initial mailing that introduces the survey has been sent.
During the visit, the field representative obtains a roster of the residents, which is then used to generate a sample of individuals to interview. Up to 15 residents are interviewed at each facility included in the survey.
An earlier report National Research Council, examined the effect of the group quarters on the American Community Survey estimates and recommended changes to the survey design and operations.
Efficient design of a multimode survey depends on good information about the costs and contribution to survey accuracy of each phase of the survey.
The subsampling rates 1 in 2, 2 in 5, or 1 in 3, noted above are determined by taking into account the costs of CAPI relative to other data collection modes.
A high-level analysis Griffin and Hughes, estimated that completed telephone interviews are about three times as expensive as questionnaires returned by mail and in-person interviews including those conducted over the telephone by field representatives cost six times as much as questionnaires completed by mail, taking into account the costs of unsuccessful follow-up attempts for nonrespondents.
These cost estimates are very rough and cannot be separated into interview-related costs and costs not related to interviews, or marginal and fixed costs, with reasonable precision. It is possible that more precise estimates would reveal an even larger gap between the cost of mail interviews and the cost of in-person interviews, especially in-person interviews that require multiple contact attempts, which in the experience of panel members is frequent.
Census Bureau staff have indicated that in the future they intend to refine the way they track cost data to better understand the costs associated with each interview. It would be particularly useful to have analyses of the costs and yield for each data collection mode by geographic area e.
It is important to note that the nonresponse follow-up subsampling rates were developed before the full implementation of the ACS and before the implementation of the Internet response option, which might affect response rates in other modes.
On the basis of testing conducted before the Internet response was introduced, the Census Bureau anticipated that in addition to generating savings in areas such as printing, mailing, and data capture, the availability of the Internet response option might also lead to a slight overall increase in self-response.
Thus, it is possible that since the time when the ACS was first launched, the optimal rates for subsampling have shifted considerably. In addition to cost factors, several other considerations are relevant to follow-up design.43 AN OVERVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION METHODS 5.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS: SOME TIPS AND COMPARISONS In the previous chapter, we identified two broad types of evaluation. More broadly, implementation challenges are especially common and important to address in any contextual data collection, where data collection is situated in the field, involves various less structured methods, measures a broader scope of the “system,” and requires patients to be engaged.
43 AN OVERVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION METHODS 5. DATA COLLECTION METHODS: SOME TIPS AND COMPARISONS In the previous chapter, we identified two broad types of evaluation. Data Collection Methods Q ualitative researchers typically rely on four methods for gathering information: (a) participating in the setting, (b) observing directly, behavior are just a few of the challenges.
This method for gathering data is basic to all qualitative studies. The purpose of this page is to describe important data collection methods used in Research.. Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results.
This paper does not aim to provide an in depth analysis of the different methods of data collection available to the case study researcher/writer, but rather to discuss the challenges and provide some guidance on the processes involved.