Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation The most traumatic era in the entire history of Roman Catholicism, some have argued, was the period from the middle of the 14th century to the middle of the 16th.
The evidence is pervasive and clear, however, that religion has disappeared nowhere but changed everywhere. For those expecting its attenuation to accompany modernization, religion remains surprisingly vibrant and socially salient.
This is particularly true in America, but in much of the rest of the world as well, where religion continues to be a potent factor in the emerging global order and its conflicts. It is in parts of Western Europe where individual religiosity has been radically transformed that the secularization thesis seems to work the best.
Religion is a significant factor in voting patterns, ideology about public policy, and political careers. But pervasive evidence also exists for changes that many observers see as religious decline: Tolerance of "other religions" grows along with declines in specific confessional and denominational loyalties i.
Responding to religious persistence as well as perceived declines, social scientists have created neosecularization perspectives, ostensibly faithful to contemporary facts as well as classical theory. They understand modernization not to involve the actual disappearance of religion, but perhaps as attenuation and certainly as changing religious forms in relation to other institutions.
From the assumed benchmark of unitary religion in medieval Europe, scholars have argued variously that secularization involved the differentiation of religion from other institutional realms, the privatization of religious belief and experience, desacralization and the declining scope of religious authority, and the "liberalization" of religious doctrine See Dobbleare, ; Chaves, ; Hadden, ; Hammond,Wald, ; and Wilson, Secularization theory, including its amended forms, has yielded many fruitful observations, and the secularization debate continues with great vigor about both the reality and the usefulness of its perspectives see, for instance, Lechner, ; Stark and Iaconne,Yamane, While we do not disparage its usefulness, we think that contested issues have narrowed so that, increasingly, facts are less in question as much as are definitional, methodological, and epistemological issues or perhaps attachment to received social science traditions.
In this paper we consider the relationship between social change and religion using perspectives other than secularization. Specifically, we utilize perspectives from 1 broad currents of world-historical change, 2 communication and media studies, and 3 postmodernism.
We assume that like other institutional realms, religion is embedded in a broad process of sociocultural change, and that in this process religion is not passive, as so often depicted in secularization or modernization theory.
Like other spheres, it is a partly autonomous force, reflexively shaping and being shaped by that large-scale transformation.
This paper does not offer either new empirical observations or different causal explanations of large-scale change patterns. Rather it uses contemporary analytic frameworks to develop a broad overview of religious change, while suggesting parallel changes in other social spheres that are all embedded in the large-scale sociocultural transformation now occurring.
We are more interested in the last part of this trichotomy, even though its contours, salient features, and the very terms to describe it are less clear e. Pre-modern Traditional societies Spanning most of human history from roughly 8, B.
Such local communities tightly bound space and time to particular places. In relatively self-contained communities, knowledge and beliefs were transmitted by oral traditions and strongly rooted in personal and local experience Innis, ; Ong, Such communities were highly aware of being surrounded by very different "others" in different villages and other places.
People understood that human life and nature were ruled by powerful natural and supernatural external forces, but spheres of social life like religion were still relatively fused and unitary, as were other institutional spheres like the family, work, medicine, or politics.
The masses of ordinary villagers only dimly recognized religion or much else as distinct from a seamless web of personal and social life. Religio-magical ceremonies, ritual, and practice were personally conducted between, and strongly identified with, known and intimate others.
Indeed, there is little evidence that abstract somethings called religion, religious faith, or different religions existed as words or ideas before the s.Scholarship since the midth century, however, has challenged that view, insisting that the picture was far more complex.
The Arian controversy, for example, was not about Christology but about a Trinitarian issue: whether Jesus was divine Many of the participants in the controversies surrounding the divinity and humanity of Jesus.
The Most Controversial Plays of the 20th Century Stage Dramas That Pushed Social Boundaries. Separation of Church and State more likely, because of— the separation of church and state. This paper provides an account of the history and current controversies over religious disestablishment.
It explains how the constitutional structure of the process centered around a particular historical. Jul 31, · The church expanded in Africa during the 20th century, improving its efforts in education and ministry and increasing the number of African priests and bishops to minister to the faithful, whose numbers grew to nearly million by the early 21st century.
Church and State, relationship between the organized church and the government of a country, especially with regard to the extent of their powers within each other's sphere of activity.. The problem of church and state has come into relatively sharp focus in the tradition of Western Christianity, although the phrase designates a basic issue .
Jul 31, · The age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Increasing numbers of Catholics held political office at the local and national levels, though tensions over church-state issues persisted, In the late 20th century the Catholic church in Canada faced difficulties, including a decline in the number of both priests and .